Ежегодная конференция IGIP в МАДИ (ГТУ) Москва

Sergiev Posad

Sergiev Posad
is a region centre in the Moscow area. It is famous thanks to the greatest in Russia monastery - the Troitse-Sergievskaja Lavra. The population of the town is 107 thousand people. The industry, science and tourism are advanced.

The general description

The Troitse-Sergieva lavra. The view from the northwest.

Sergiev Posad is located only in 71 kilometres from Moscow, that in many respects determines its today's shape. The numerous suburban trains go here with the crowds of the tourists. And it is not casual, as there is one of the largest sights of Russia - the Troitse-Sergievskaja Lavra. However, it is necessary to note, that not all the sights of the town are inside the monastery walls. In the settlements there are the separate churches and old houses. The town is "scattered", many its quarters are remoted from each other. The town is crossed by the river Kanchura with its inflows. On some of them the dams are constructed. The coast of reservoirs are low, but, nevertheless, they recover landscapes and create necessary open space for perception of grandiose monuments of the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra. Through all the town the highway Moscow-Yaroslavl passes. In the town there are rather large industrial enterprises located, fortunately, far from the centre. Sergiev Posad can be considered as advanced scientific centre. There are the research institutes of toys and poultry-keeping, that allow us to believe, that the toys made in this town are most scientific, and a bird is most investigated. In the Lavra the Spiritual Seminary and Moscow Spiritual Academy function. Thus, the town is harmoniously combined of an industry, science, tourism and even of "spiritual industry".

Sergiev Posad is located in such a manner that just from it here is conveniently to begin the acquaintance with "the Golden Ring", which is rich by sights. I recommended you to spend a day for survey of Lavra, and by evening to be set off further to the north, in Perejaslavl, where the town is quieter, the prices are lower, and all is convenient for the night rest.

Pages of history

The Troitsky cathedral. The fragment.

The foundation of Troitse-Sergievsky monastery (about 1345) coincided with time of liberation of Russian state from Mongol-Tartar yoke. This founder was Rostov's inhabitant Varfolomej. The monastery was named Sergievsky, as the founder accepted the name Sergij - Sergij Radonezhsky. A word "Radonezhsky" is a geographical definition of district. In these places there was a village Radonezh, nowadays -- Gorodok.
In 1380 in the Troitse-Sergievsky monastery the army of the prince Dmitry Donskoj was blessed to the Kulikovskaja battle. The history keeps memory of the local monks Peresvet and Osljab, taken a part in this battle.

After this battle Dmitry Donskoj returned in the Troitse-Sergievsky monastery to remember the lost. Obviously, the nearness to Moscow and good luck of blessed here military campaign determined the brilliant future of the monastery. However in 1408 Tartars taken a revenge. Khan Edigej seized and burned down the monastery. In 1411 the monastery was built up and during two hundred years peacefully developed. The Troitse-Sergievsky monastery became the largest landowner in all Russia.
In 1540-1550 the monastery was enclosed by a powerful stone wall with 11 towers. The tsar Ivan Grozny came personally to check construction. As it is known, practically all the Russian towns, not having stone walls, were seized during the Polish-Lithuanian invasion. Thanks to stone walls the Troitse-Sergievsky monastery not only sustained the siege, but also became one of the stronghold of the home guard of Minin and Pozharsky.

In the meantime around the monastery the villages and the settlements expanded. This process was especially fast after 1610, when in the monastery the military garrison was settled. By the beginning of the 18th century the villages formed already the closed ring around the monastery, and in 1782 they received the name of Sergiev Posad. The majority of the inhabitants were engaged in service of pilgrims and in trade using constant inflow of the people.
In 1744 the monastery received a high title of Lavra.
In the beginning of the 20th century the Lavra was exposed to a shock. In 1919 it was closed, and in its territory the museum (one of the most interesting museums of a similar sort in the country) was opened. In 1930 the town was renamed. The new name Zagorsk was received in honour of the revolutionary Zagorsky, the secretary of the Moscow Committee of the Bolshevist party. As it is known, this Bolshevik with his colleagues was blown up by bomb, that symbolised an origin of a deep love of Russian people to the Party and its leaders. Only in 1991 the town was returned its historical name. But the religious life here began again only since 1946, when in its territory the monks appeared again.

Places of interest

The Troitsky cathedral. The 15th century.

The main sights of the town are concentrated in the Troitse-Sergievskaja Lavra. The Lavra occupies an irregular polygon limited by three-circles brick walls 1,5 km length, up to 14 meters height and up to 6 m thick. A today's shape this structure received in the middle of the 17th century, when the walls were modernised. The fortress has 4 octagonal towers on the corners and 7 quadrangular towers in spans. The opened and vacant spaces before the wall emphasise its greatness (best point of the review - from the Krasnogorskaja square). The towers are put forward from the walls, that provided the successful flank and cross fire. Under one of the towers the Poles made an underground passage (during the siege in the 17th century), however it was noticed in time and undermined.

The main sight of the Lavra is the white-stone Troitsky cathedral (1422), decorated by icons of Andrej Rublev. Earlier in the cathedral there were the frescos of Rublev, which in due time were replaced. This cathedral is a composite centre of Lavra. The cathedral is also the first stone building in the territory of the monastery.

In 1476 on a place of a wooden temple the Pskov foremen erected the stone Dukhovskaja church. This is an extraordinary slender, easy and rushed upwards tructure. In the foundation of the temple the open belfry on six round poles is located. In spans of the belfry the bells hang on oak bars. In the ancient times the Dukhovskaja church was used for supervision over vicinities. In case of an aggravation of situation it was necessary to call in the bell, warning all the monks and the adjoined settlement at the same time.

The Uspensky cathedral. The 16th century.

Under a command of Ivan Grozny and by his means as memory of a conquest of Kazan under the sample of the main cathedral of Moscow Kremlin the Uspensky cathedral was erected. It is majestic six-poles temple with five domes put closely. Today it is as though a majorant of the whole complex, occupying thus a geographically central place in the Lavra.

The building of Trapeznaja chamber is very beautiful. The foremen, not limited by any canons, erected a real masterpiece of architecture richly decorated with various elements. Without any doubt, the monks should have good appetite only by the shape of the chamber. Perhaps, in the country there is not so beautiful monument of similar purpose.

The imperial chambers (the 17th century) is the richly decorated building intended for reception of imperial persons, however since 1814 here the Spiritual Academy was placed.

The belfry is interesting, too. It was built for 28 years and terminated to 1769. The belfry have 42 bells, the largest of which 4 000 poods weight. The height of the belfry is 88 meters.

In the Lavra there are also many other interesting monuments of architecture. Outside of the Lavra to the south on so-called Podol in 1547 the churches Pjatnitskaja and of Vvedenija Bogoroditsy and the chapel of Pjatnitsky Kolodets were built. Now this place presents as though separate ensemble, which I recommend to visit.